LAMP evaluated and subsequently designed and implemented a new surveying and mapping system for both the short term targets of the project and for the longer term use by the Agricultural Land Management and Statistic Department (formerly known as SLRD). The boundary of land holdings in the project site in the Dry Land (the so called Yar Lands) are mostly different to those shown on the existing Cadastral Maps (Kwin maps) and in need of update.
Although holdings in the Dry Zone are composed of far fewer fields than in the Lower Myanmar Zone, there are extensive changes in land boundaries. The Kwin maps were not systematically updated for some time and it has been the practice of the farmer to extend his land onto adjoining land. The problem is to update the Kwin map quickly and with efficiency so that the limited Government resources are well used. The ground survey work was constrained by the onset of the rainy season. A second constraint was that the land title was already issued based on the existing Kwin map. Therefore, any changes in the land holding description must be carefully recorded, put on public notice and approved.
The Kwin map is fundamental to the Cadastral System in farmlands because it shows the boundaries of the farmland holdings which must be referenced by the land titles (land use certificate). It also is referenced by the land tax assessment record system and by other land reporting functions.
The updating operation requires data capture and geo-referencing of the satellite imagery and subsequent digitising of Kwin maps and image maps and then the mobilisation of land survey teams. There are two land surveying approaches to updating the Kwin map used in LAMP. One approach uses satellite imagery only and the second approach makes use of surveying instruments (GNSS survey equipment). The field work is followed by GIS data processing to update the maps. All spatial data are linked to the national survey control network.
In the first method of land surveying, the Kwin maps which are typically 60-80 years old, are scanned and image enhanced before geo-referencing to the satellite imagery. Holding boundaries are digitized off the enhanced Kwin map image and also digitized from the satellite imagery to spatially correct the land boundaries where obvious. Field maps of suitable size and scale are produced showing the two types of boundaries in different colours. Ground surveys follow to validate or record changed boundaries on the field map. In the second method the Kwin map is digitised and changes are made to the map based on the GNSS survey. The surveyor, in both techniques, visits to the field to obtain the correct boundary by the agreement of the farmers after the IEC Campaign.
In both cases the digital Kwin map is updated through the use of the GIS and confirmed by higher level administrative personnel according to the Farmland Law. The holdings on the updated Kwin maps are linked to the land titles. If required, replacement titles may be issued by the Farmland Administrative Body. Both the spatial and alphanumeric data in digital format are confirmed into the Cadastral Data Base.
The LAMP Project has demonstrated the use of modern technology with new procedures to more conveniently and accurately maintain cadastral records for the long term in a digital database environment at the Township level. LAMP is working on its target of 20 Kwin maps to be updated during 2015 using new technology and methods in survey and mapping system and installing Data Base System. Kwin maps were updated in LAMP by using GIS technique and also GNSS surveying with RTK GPS to demonstrate the relative effectiveness of the new techniques. The ALMSD (SLRD) has an objective for updating some 80,000 Kwin maps nationally and to build a Data Base System in the Department together with technology transfer and training. The differences of the boundaries of holdings apparent in the Dry Zone indicate that the surveyors will need to operate ground surveys for update and resurvey in many areas for a considerable time.